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情态动词是什么.只有这三个?

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情态动词是什么.
只有这三个?
情态动词的定义:
情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪,态度或语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语, 只能和其他动词原形构成谓语.
We can be there on time tomorrow.
我们明天能按时去那儿.
May I have your name?
我能知道你的名字吗?
Shall we begin now?
我们现在就开始吗?
You must obey the school rules.
你必须遵守校规.
情态动词数量不多,但用途广泛,主要有下列:
can (could), may (might), must, need, ought to, dare (dared), shall (should), will (would) .
情态动词的位置:
情态动词在句中放在谓语动词之前, 谓语动词前若有助动词,则在助动词之前,疑问句中, 情态动词则在主语之前.
I can see you. Come here.
我能看见你,过来吧.
He must have been away.
他一定走了.
What can I do for you?
你要什么?
How dare you treat us like that!
你怎能那样对待我们!
情态动词的特点:
情态动词无人称和数的变化, 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 "not". 个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式, 过去式用来表达更加客气, 委婉的语气, 时态性不强, 可用于过去,现在或将来.
He could be here soon.
他很快就来.
We can't carry the heavy box.
我们搬不动那箱子.
I'm sorry I can't help you.
对不起,我帮不上你.
情态动词的用法:
can (could) 表示说话人能,可以,同意,准许,以及
客观条件许可,could 为 can 的过去式.
Can you pass me the books?
你能给我递一下书吗 ?
Could you help me, please?
请问,你能帮助我吗?
What can you do?
你能干点什么呢?
Can you be sure?
你有把握吗?
can 和could 只能用于现在式和过去式两种时态,将来时态用 be able to 来表示.
He could help us at all.
他完全可以帮助我们.
With the teacher's help,I shall be able to speak English correctly.
由于老师的帮助,我将能准确地讲英语.
may (might) 可以, 表示说话人同意,许可或请求对方许可.
You may take the book home.
你可以把书带回家去.
May I come in?
我可以进来吗?
May I use your dictionary?
我可以用你的词典吗?
You may put on more clothes.
你可以多穿点衣服.
He said he might lend us some money.
他说他可以借给我们一些钱.
may 否定式为 may not, 缩写形式是 mayn't.
might 是may 的过去式, 有两种用法, 一种表示过去式,一种表示虚拟语气, 使语气更加委婉, 客气或对可能性的怀疑.
He told me he might be here on time.
他说他能按时间来.
Might I borrow some money now.
我可以借点钱吗?
He might be alive.
他可能还活着.
Must 必须,应该,一定,准是, 表示说话人认为有必要做某事, 命令, 要求别人做某事以及对事物的推测.
must 用来指一般现在时和一般将来时, 过去式可用 have to 的过去式代替.
I must finish my work today.
我今天必须完成我的工作.
You mustn't work all the time.
你不能老是工作.
Must I return the book tomorrow?
我必须明天还书吗?
After such a long walk, you must be tired.
走了这么长的路,你一定困了.
He must be the man I am looking for.
他一定是我要找的人.
He had to go because of somebody's calling
him that day.
那天他要走是因为有人叫他.
must + have + 过去分词,表示现在对过去事物的推测.
He must have told my parents about it.
他一定把这件事情告诉我父母亲了.
He must have received my letter now.
他现在一定收到我的信了.
It's six o'clock already, we must have been late again.
已经六点钟了,我们一定又迟到了.
must 和 have to 的区别: must 表示说话人的主观思想, have to 表示客观需要.
You must do it now.
你必需现在就干.(说话人认为必须现在干)
I have to go now.
我得走了.(客观条件必须现在走)
need 需要 多用在否定式或疑问句中.
Need I attend the meeting tomorrow?
我需要明天参加会议吗?
You need not hand in the paper this week.
这一周你不必交论文.
need 是一个情态动词, 他的用法完全和其他情态动词一样, 但 need 还可当作实义动词使用, 这时 need 就象其他动词一样,有第三人称,单复数, 后面加带 to 的动词等特性.
I need a bike to go to school.
我上学需要一辆自行车.
Do you need a dictionary?
你需要词典吗?
She needs a necklace.
她需要一条项链.
needn't + have + 过去分词 表示过去做了没必要做的事情.
You needn't have taken it seriously.
这件事情你不必太认真.
dare 敢 多用在否定或疑问句中.
The little girl dare not speak in public.
小女孩不敢在公众面前说话.
Dare you catch the little cat?
你敢抓小猫吗?
dare 除用作情态动词外,更多的是当实义动词使用, 用法同实义动词一样,要考虑人称,单复数,时态等.
Do you dare to walk in the dark?
你敢黑夜走路吗?
He doesn't dare to tell the teacher what happened that day.
他不敢告诉老师那天发生的事.
ought 应当,应该 后面跟带有 to 的动词不定式.
You ought to read these books if you want to know how to repair the motorcar.
如果你想知道如何修理汽车,你应该读这些书.
You ought to bring the child here.
你应该把孩子带来.
ought + to have done 句型.指过去动作,表示一件事情该做而未做.
You ought to have been here yesterday.
你昨天就应该来.
ought not to have done 句型.表示一件不该做的事情却做了.
You ought not to have taken the book out of the reading-room.
你不应该把书带出阅览室.
will (would)决心,愿望. would 为 will 的过去式,
可用于各人称.
I'll do my best to catch up with them.
我要尽全力赶上他们.
I'll never do it again, that's the last time.
我再不会做那件事情了,这是最后一次.
He said he would help me.
他说他会帮助我.
will, would用于疑问句表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问,用 would 比 will 更婉转,客气.
It's hot. Will you open the windows?
天气太热了,你能打开窗户吗?
Will you help me to work it out?
你能帮我解这道题吗?
Would you like some coffee?
给你来点咖啡怎样?
Shall, should表示命令,警告,允诺,征求,劝告,建议惊奇.
You should hand in the exercise book.
你应该交作业本儿了.
This should be no problem.
这应该没问题.
Shall we go now.
我们现在可以走了吗?
Why should I meet him?
为什么我要见他?
have to,不得不,必须,表示客观条件只能如此, 而must 则表示主观思想必须.
I have to go now.
我现在得走了.
I have to cook for my child.
我得给孩子做饭.
You must be here on time next time.
你下次一定要按时来.
We must go to get the timetable ourselves.
我们一定要自己去拿时刻表.
参考资料:www.cnread.net/cnread1/yyxx/yyyf/008.htm
回答者:zyy905 - 助理 二级 2-23 15:18
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其他回答共 5 条
首先它是动词,而且不同于行为动词,行为动词表示的是可以通过行为来表达的动作(如写,读,跑),而情态动词只是表达的一种想法(如能,也许,敢).
用法是:情态动词+行为动词原形
例句:I can read this sentence in English.
我能用英语读这句话.
回答者:wz900915 - 助理 二级 2-23 15:19
情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪,态度或语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语, 只能和其他动词原形构成谓语.
We can be there on time tomorrow.我们明天能按时去那儿.
May I have your name? 我能知道你的名字吗?
Shall we begin now?我们现在就开始吗?
You must obey the school rules.你必须遵守校规.
情态动词数量不多,但用途广泛,主要有下列:
can (could), may (might), must, need, ought to, dare (dared), shall (should), will (would) .
情态动词的位置:
情态动词在句中放在谓语动词之前, 谓语动词前若有助动词,则在助动词之前,疑问句中, 情态动词则在主语之前.
I can see you. Come here. 我能看见你,过来吧.
He must have been away.他一定走了.
What can I do for you?你要什么?
How dare you treat us like that!你怎能那样对待我们!
情态动词的特点:
情态动词无人称和数的变化, 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 "not". 个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式, 过去式用来表达更加客气, 委婉的语气, 时态性不强, 可用于过去,现在或将来.
He could be here soon.他很快就来.
We can't carry the heavy box.我们搬不动那箱子.
I'm sorry I can't help you.对不起,我帮不上你.
情态动词的用法:
can (could) 表示说话人能,可以,同意,准许,以及
客观条件许可,could 为 can 的过去式.
Can you pass me the books? 你能给我递一下书吗 ?
Could you help me, please? 请问,你能帮助我吗?
What can you do? 你能干点什么呢?
Can you be sure?你有把握吗?
can 和could 只能用于现在式和过去式两种时态,将来时态用 be able to 来表示.
He could help us at all.他完全可以帮助我们.
With the teacher's help,I shall be able to speak English correctly.由于老师的帮助,我将能准确地讲英语.
may (might) 可以, 表示说话人同意,许可或请求对方许可.
You may take the book home. 你可以把书带回家去.
May I come in? 我可以进来吗?
may 否定式为 may not, 缩写形式是 mayn't.
might 是may 的过去式, 有两种用法, 一种表示过去式,一种表示虚拟语气, 使语气更加委婉, 客气或对可能性的怀疑.
He told me he might be here on time.
他说他能按时间来.
Might I borrow some money now.
我可以借点钱吗?
Must 必须,应该,一定,准是, 表示说话人认为有必要做某事, 命令, 要求别人做某事以及对事物的推测.
must 用来指一般现在时和一般将来时, 过去式可用 have to 的过去式代替.
I must finish my work today.
我今天必须完成我的工作.
You mustn't work all the time.
你不能老是工作.
must + have + 过去分词,表示现在对过去事物的推测.
He must have told my parents about it.
他一定把这件事情告诉我父母亲了.
He must have received my letter now.
他现在一定收到我的信了.
It's six o'clock already, we must have been late again.
已经六点钟了,我们一定又迟到了.
must 和 have to 的区别: must 表示说话人的主观思想, have to 表示客观需要.
You must do it now.
你必需现在就干.(说话人认为必须现在干)
I have to go now.
我得走了.(客观条件必须现在走)
need 需要 多用在否定式或疑问句中.
need 是一个情态动词, 他的用法完全和其他情态动词一样, 但 need 还可当作实义动词使用, 这时 need 就象其他动词一样,有第三人称,单复数, 后面加带 to 的动词等特性.
I need a bike to go to school.
我上学需要一辆自行车.
needn't + have + 过去分词 表示过去做了没必要做的事情.
You needn't have taken it seriously.
这件事情你不必太认真.
dare 敢 多用在否定或疑问句中.
The little girl dare not speak in public.
小女孩不敢在公众面前说话.
Dare you catch the little cat?
你敢抓小猫吗?
dare 除用作情态动词外,更多的是当实义动词使用, 用法同实义动词一样,要考虑人称,单复数,时态等.
ought 应当,应该 后面跟带有 to 的动词不定式.
You ought to read these books if you want to know how to repair the motorcar.
如果你想知道如何修理汽车,你应该读这些书.
You ought to bring the child here.
你应该把孩子带来.
ought + to have done 句型.指过去动作,表示一件事情该做而未做.
You ought to have been here yesterday.
你昨天就应该来.
ought not to have done 句型.表示一件不该做的事情却做了.
You ought not to have taken the book out of the reading-room.
你不应该把书带出阅览室.
will (would)决心,愿望. would 为 will 的过去式,
可用于各人称.
I'll do my best to catch up with them.
我要尽全力赶上他们.
I'll never do it again, that's the last time.
我再不会做那件事情了,这是最后一次.
He said he would help me.
他说他会帮助我.
will, would用于疑问句表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问,用 would 比 will 更婉转,客气.
It's hot. Will you open the windows?
天气太热了,你能打开窗户吗?
Will you help me to work it out?
你能帮我解这道题吗?
Would you like some coffee?
给你来点咖啡怎样?
Shall, should表示命令,警告,允诺,征求,劝告,建议惊奇.
You should hand in the exercise book.
你应该交作业本儿了.
This should be no problem.
这应该没问题.
Shall we go now.
我们现在可以走了吗?
Why should I meet him?
为什么我要见他?
have to,不得不,必须,表示客观条件只能如此, 而must 则表示主观思想必须.
I have to go now.
我现在得走了.
I have to cook for my child.
我得给孩子做饭.
You must be here on time next time.
你下次一定要按时来.
We must go to get the timetable ourselves.
我们一定要自己去拿时刻表.
回答者: 萍mm - 首席运营官 十二级 2-23 15:20
概 说
助动词(auxiliary)主要有两类:基本助动词(primary auxiliary)和情态助动词(modal auxiliary).基本助动词有三个:do, have和be;情态助动词有十三个:may, might; can, could; will, would; shall, should; must, need, dare, used to, ought to. 上述两类助动词的共同特征是,在协助主动词构成限定动词词组时,具有作用词的功能:
1) 构成否定式:
He didn't go and neither did she.
The meeting might not start until 5 o'clock.
2) 构成疑问式或附加疑问式:
Must you leave right now?
You have been learning French for 5 years, haven't you?
3) 构成修辞倒装:
Nowhere can he obtain any information about his sister.
Hardly had he arrived when she started complaining.
4) 代替限定动词词组:
A: Who can solve this crossword puzzle?
B: Tom can.
A: Shall I write to him?
B: Yes, do.
情态助动词的特征
基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是,基本助动词本身没有词义,而情态助动词则有自己的词义,能表示说话人对有关动作或状态的看法,或表示主观设想:
What have you been doing since? (构成完成进行体,本身无词义)
I am afraid I must be going. (一定要)
You may have read some account of the matter. (或许已经)
除此之外,情态助动词还有如下词法和句法特征:
1) 除ought和used以外,其他情态动词后面只能接不带to的不定式.如果我们把ought to和used to看做是固定词组的话,那么,所有情态动词无一例外地只能接不带to的不定式:
We used to grow beautiful roses.
I asked if he would come and repair my television set.
2) 情态助动词在限定动词词组总总是位居第一:
They need not have been punished so severely.
3) 情态助动词用于第三人称单数现在时的时候,没有词形变化,即其词尾无-s形式:
She dare not say what she thinks.
4) 情态动词没有非限定形式,即没有不定式、-ing分词和-ed分词形式:
Still, she needn't have run away.
5) 情态助动词的“时”的形式并不是时间区别的主要标志.在不少场合,情态助动词的现在时和过去时形式都可以表示现在、过去或将来时间:
Would you mind very much if I ask you to do something?
She told him he ought not to have done it.
6) 情态助动词之间是相互排斥的,即在一个限定动词词组中只能出现一个情态助动词,但有时却可以与have和be基本助动词连用:
You should have washed the wound.
Well, you shouldn't be reading a novel.
现将情态助动词的各种形式列表如下:
情态助动词的意义和用法
情态助动词从最普通的意义上来说,是修饰分句意义的一种方式,它可以反映说话者对其表述是否真实和可能的程度作出判断.但不同的情态助动词本身所包含的意义和用法又不同,下面逐个分析.
1) can和could的用法
1. 表示能力或客观可能性,还可以表示请求和允许.如:
Can you finish this work tonight?
Man cannot live without air.
— Can I go now? — Yes, you can.
注意:①could也可表示请求,预期委婉,主要用于疑问句,不可用于肯定句,答语应用can(即could不能用于现在时态的简略答语中).如:
Could I come to see you tomorrow?
Yes, you can. (否定答语可用No, I'm afraid not.)
②can表示能力时,还可用be able to代替.如:
I'll not be able to come this afternoon.
2. 表示惊异、怀疑、不相信的态度.(主要用在否定句、疑问句或惊叹句中)
Can this be true?
How can you be so careless!
This cannot be done by him.
3. “can(could) + have + 过去分词”的疑问或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为怀疑或不肯定.如:
He cannot have been to that town.
Can he have got the book?
2) may和might的用法
1. 表示许可.
表示请求、允许时,might比many的语气更委婉一些,否定回答时要用mustn't表示“不可以”、“禁止”、“阻止”之意.如:
You may drive the car.
— Might I use your pen? — No, you mustn't.
用May I ... 征询对方许可在文体上比较正式,在口气上比较客气.在日常口语中,用Can I ... 征询对方意见在现代口语中更为常见.
2. 用于祈使句中表示祝愿.如:
May you succeed!
3. 表示推测、可能(疑问句不能用于此意).
He may be very busy now.
4. “may(might) + have + 过去分词”表示对过去发生的行为的推测.如:
He may not have finished the work.
3) must和have to的用法
1. 表示必须、必要.如:
You must come in time.
回答must引出的问句时,如果是否定的回答,不能用mustn't,而要用needn't或don't have to.
— Must we hand in our exercise books today?
— Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to.)
2. “must be + 表语”的结构表示推测,它的否定或疑问式用can代替must.
This must be your pen.
3. “must + have + 过去分词”的结构常用在肯定句中,表示对过去发生的行为的推测.它的否定或疑问式用can代替must.
He must have been to Shanghai.
4. have to的含义与must相似,两者往往可以互换使用,但have to有各种形式,随have的变化而定.must与have to有下列几点不同:
① must表示的是说话人的主观看法,而have to则往往强调客观需要.如:
The play is not interesting. I really must go now.
I had to work when I was your age.
② must一般只表现在,have则有更多的时态形式.
③ 二者的否定意义不大相同.如:
You mustn't go. 你可不要去.
You don't have to go. 你不必去.
④ 询问对方的意愿时应用must.如:
Must I clean all the room?
4) dare和need的用法
1. need表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于否定句或疑问句中,在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to,或should代替.如:
You needn’t come so early.
— Need I finish the work today?
— Yes, you must.
注意:needn't + 不定式的完成式“表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事”.如:
You needn't have waited for me.
2. Dare作情态动词时,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件从句中,一般不用在肯定句中.如:
How dare you say I'm unfair.
He daren't speak English before such a crowd, dare he?
3. Dare和need常用作实义动词,有时态、人称和数的变化,所不同的是,作实义动词时,在肯定句中,dare后面通常接带to的不定式,在否定和疑问句中,dare后面可接带to或不带to的不定式.如:
I dare to swim across this river.
He does not dare (to) answer.
Don't you dare (to) touch it!
I wondered he dare (to) say that.
He needs to finish it this evening.
5) shall和should的用法
1. Shall用于第一人称,表示征求对方的意愿.如:
What shall we do this evening?
2. Shall用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请示.如:
Shall we begin our lesson?
When shall he be able to leave the hospital?
3. Shall用于第二、第三人称,表示说话人给对方命令、警告、允诺或威胁.如:
You shall fail if you don't work harder. (警告)
He shall have the book when I finish reading. (允诺)
He shall be punished. (威胁)
4. Should表示劝告、建议、命令,其同义词是ought to;在疑问句中,通常用should代替ought to.如: